Cities in America – Cities in Colombia – Bogota City
Bogotá, city in focal Colombia, capital of the country. It is situaded at an elevation of about 2640 m (about 8660 ft) on a mountain-rimmed plateau high in the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes Mountains. The climate is temperate, with an average annual temperature of 14° C (57° F) from month to month.
Bogotá is Colombia’s largest city and one of South America’s fastest-growing metropolitan areas. Industries include printing and publishing, motor-vehicle assembly, food processing, and the manufacture of textiles, metals, machinery, and electrical equipment. Many banks and corporations maintain their headquarters in the city. Railroads and highways link the city with other major centers.
Bogotá is sometimes called the Athens of South America. The National University of Colombia (1867) and many other universities located here make Bogotá the nation’s chief educational center. Points of interest in the city include the famous Gold Museum,the National Museum; San Francisco Church (1567) and a National cathedral. On a nearby mountain is the shrine of Monserrate, famous for its view over the city. Attractions beyond the metropolitan area include the unique underground Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá and the famous Tequendama Falls, which plunge through a canyon in the Andean jungle.
Bogotá was founded in 1538 by the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. The new city became the viceregal capital of New Granada in 1717. It was captured by Simón Bolívar in 1819 and was the capital of the independent nation of Great Colombia (including Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). It became the capital of New Granada (later renamed Colombia) in 1830 when Great Colombia was dissolved. The city expanded rapidly after 1940 as large numbers of rural Colombians migrated here in search of greater economic opportunities.