Sofia, additionally Sofiya, city and capital of Bulgaria. The city is situated on a raised plain at the foot of the Balkan Mountains in the western piece of the nation. Mount Vitosha, found just 8 km (5 mi) south of the city, rises 550 m (1,805 ft) over the urban scene. Sofia is Bulgaria’s biggest city and its main business, assembling, transportation, and social focus. Significant makes incorporate metal, wood, and elastic items, hardware, synthetics, electronic and transportation gear, handled nourishment, materials, garments, footwear, and written words. Government exercises, development, and the travel industry are additionally significant in the city’s monetary base.
Sofia is the site of the University of Sofia (1888); higher organizations of synthetic innovation, designing, ranger service, mining, financial matters, and expressive arts; the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1869); the Academy of Medicine (1972); the Bulgarian State Conservatory (1904); and Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius National Library (1878). Among the city’s numerous historical centers are the National Natural History Museum; the National Archeological Museum; the National Art Gallery, which houses an accumulation of Bulgarian and outside workmanship; the National Ethnographical Museum, which has presentations of local ethnography and old stories things; and the Museum of Sofia’s History. Beautiful structures incorporate Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the fifteenth century Buyuk Djami Mosque. The fourth century Church of Saint George, which ensures a few medieval frescoes inside its vault, is the most established structure in the city. Different focal points are the vestiges of the sixth century Church of Saint Sofia. The urban structure and design of Sofia mirror the juxtaposition of the city’s characterizing times of development under Ottoman and Soviet standard.
The historical backdrop of Sofia dates to the seventh century bc, when a Thracian settlement was built up on the site of the present-day city. The settlement was seized by Roman armed forces in around 29 bc. In the mid second century promotion the network was strengthened by Roman ruler Trajan and was known as Serdica (Greek Sardica). As a result of its area on key trans-European exchange courses, including the Belgrade-to-Istanbul street, Sofia succeeded until 441, when Attila and his Hun armed forces attacked and looted the city. In 447 they totally bulldozed the settlement.
In the sixth century, Byzantine ruler Justinian I reasserted control and revamped the destroyed city. In 809 the Bulgarians caught Sofia, renamed the settlement Sredets, and joined it into the primary Bulgarian Empire. Control exchanged hands between the Bulgarians and the Byzantines during the eleventh and twelfth hundreds of years. The city at long last turned out to be a piece of the second Bulgarian Empire late in the twelfth century and formed into a significant exchanging focus. In 1382 the Ottoman Turks caught Sofia, starting a time of Ottoman strength that kept going about 500 years. The Ottomans named the city Sofia (Greek for «knowledge») after the Church of Saint Sofia. During the seventeenth century, Ottoman guideline started to disintegrate under the weights of a few inward uprisings lastly an authoritative military test from Russia. Sofia was freed after Russian soldiers vanquished the Ottoman powers in 1877, and the city was named capital of recently autonomous Bulgaria in 1878. Industry grew quickly in Sofia, and this monetary development pulled in huge quantities of country transients to the capital city looking for occupations.
Sofia experienced serious harm Allied shelling during World War II (1939-1945). After the war Bulgaria went under Soviet control, and Communist specialists remade the war-torn city, putting aggressively in modern extension. This accentuation on quick modern development brought about contamination and poor water quality. Since the mid 1990s, when Bulgaria split away from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), these natural issues, joined with a declining national economy and slacking political change, have started enormous open fights in Sofia against the Bulgarian government. During the early and mid-1990s, rising rents and lodging deficiencies were a steady issue in Sofia, and nourishment and water deficiencies required proportioning. Regardless of these troubles, Sofia remains as one of the most lovely and memorable urban areas in Europe.