Birmingham, city, seat of the metropolitan district of West Midlands, focal England. In 1974 the previous metropolitan ward of Sutton Coldfield was joined into the city. A noteworthy mechanical focus, Birmingham is the second biggest city in Britain. It is the center point of the British metal products industry and is served by a system of railways and roadways. Among the chief metal items fabricated are engine vehicle parts, machine instruments, brassware, family utensils, wearing firearms, and gems. Other significant makes incorporate electrical gear, glass, elastic items, and synthetic substances. The city is situated in a significant coal-mining locale.
Birmingham is the seat of the University of Birmingham (1900), the University of Aston in Birmingham (1895), the University of Central England in Birmingham (1992, in the past a polytechnic school), and a few specialized schools. Social offices incorporate the enormous Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery (1867), the Museum of Science and Industry, the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, and the Birmingham Repertory Theater (1913). The city’s Municipal Bank (opened 1916) is the just one of its sort in Britain. Birmingham houses of worship incorporate Saint Philip’s Cathedral (1715), Saint Martin’s Parish Church in the Bull Ring (thirteenth century), and the Roman Catholic Saint Chad’s Cathedral (1841). Other prominent structures are the neoclassical Town Hall (1834), the Renaissance-style Council House (1881), and the advanced Bull Ring Shopping Center.
In 1166 the town of Birmingham was conceded a market sanction. By the sixteenth century, it had turned into a flourishing assembling focus work in metal merchandise. At the hour of the English Revolution during the 1640s, Birmingham delivered somewhere in the range of 16,000 sword edges for the Parliamentary powers, because of which the town was blockaded and taken by the Royalists. In light of its assembling limit, Birmingham accepted a place critical in the late eighteenth century, during the Industrial Revolution. Dynamic in the town around then were various compelling designers and researchers, including the creator of the steam motor, James Watt, and the scientist Joseph Priestley. In 1838 railroad lines were built from Birmingham to London and Liverpool.
During the late nineteenth century, the city wound up known for its remarkable metropolitan improvement programs, for example, those dedicated to the foundation of open utilities and the clearing of ghettos. Intensely besieged during World War II (1939-1945), the city has experienced broad revamping.