Athens, city in southeastern Greece, capital and biggest city of the nation. Arranged on the Attic plain on the Greek terrain, it is encompassed by mountains on three sides, the most significant of which are Párnis, Pendéli, and Hymettos (Imittós). Two minor streams, the Kifisós River in the west and the Ilisós River in the east, move through the city. With its port, Piraeus (Pireás), which is situated around 8 km (around 5 mi) toward the southwest on the Gulf of Saronikós (a bay of the Aegean Sea), it frames a bound together metropolitan district. Athens overwhelms the financial, social, and political existence of Greece.
The Acropolis of Athens has been possessed since Neolithic occasions. As right on time as 1400 bc it was braced in the way of Mycenae, Tiryns, and other late Bronze Age bastions. Around then and in the resulting «dull age» (1200-900 bc) that pursued far reaching warring among the Mycenaean Greeks, Athens was one of various negligible states in Attica.
In the mid-ninth century bc, the encompassing domain, including the seaport of Piraeus, was joined into the city-territory of Athens. At the point when the government was supplanted by a nobility of nobles, the ordinary citizens had few rights. The city was constrained by the Areopagus (Council of Elders), who designated three (later nine) judges, or archons, who were liable for the lead of war, religion, and law. Discontent with this framework prompted a failed endeavor at oppression (fascism) by Cylon (632 bc). Proceeded with agitation prompted Draco’s unforgiving yet unmistakable law code established in 621 bc. The code just intensified the social and financial emergencies, however in the long run it achieved the agreement arrangement of Solon as archon in 594 bc. Solon set up a committee (boulé), a well known gathering (ekklesía), and law courts. He additionally empowered exchange, transformed the coinage, and welcomed outside specialists to the city. His changes, be that as it may, were just mostly effective.
In 560 bc the despot Pisistratus, upheld by the nobility, oversaw Athens. He broadened the gathering spot of Solon’s chamber in the public square (commercial center) and fabricated another sanctuary of Athena, the city’s supporter goddess, on the Acropolis. Pisistratus likewise supported open occasions, for example, the Panathenaic celebration, held each fourth year in Athena’s respect. Numerous other open works were attempted by the despot and his children somewhere in the range of 560 and 510 bc. In 509 bc Cleisthenes drove a law based insurgency, redesigning the city’s inborn structure with the goal that the base of his help was in the more fair urban focus and in Piraeus. The ground-breaking well known get together met on the Pnyx slope beneath the Acropolis.
In 480 bc Athens was sacked and about crushed by the Persians. The Athenian head Themistocles, having vanquished the Persian intruders at Salamís, started the rebuilding of the city, building circuit dividers around both Athens and Piraeus. He additionally started development of dividers interfacing Athens with the port. His work was proceeded by Pericles during the 450s bc. Pericles, more than some other majority rule pioneer, made Athens an extraordinary city. Open assets were utilized to assemble the Parthenon, the sanctuary of Nike, the Erechtheum, and other incredible landmarks. He built up the public square, which started to show imports from around the globe. As leader of the Delian League of Greek city-states, Athens was currently a magnificent power; its courts attempted cases from everywhere throughout the Aegean. The way of life of the city was heavenly. Incredible disasters and comedies were created in the performance center of Dionysus, underneath the Acropolis, and Pericles’ circle included driving scholarly people. The city, with its law based constitution and splendid lifestyle, turned into the «school of Hellas.»
After its thrashing by Sparta in the ruinous Peloponnesian War (431-404 bc), the city started to decrease. Socrates had to end his very own life when he addressed conventional thoughts, and a frame of mind of negativity won. By the by, reasoning kept on prospering. In the fourth century bc Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum were established as philosophical schools, and Demosthenes, Isocrates, and others made talk an artistic work.
In spite of the fact that Athens for all intents and purposes lost its freedom to Macedonia in 338 bc, the town kept on being a significant social focus. It tumbled to Rome in 146 bc however kept up great relations with the Romans until they sacked it in 86 bc, wrecking a considerable lot of Athens’ landmarks. In any case, Athens stayed a focal point of learning for noticeable Greeks and Romans from the first century bc until late relic. In the third century advertisement it was harmed by attacking Goths, who were repulsed with some trouble. In promotion 529 the Christian sovereign Justinian shut the agnostic philosophical schools, for all intents and purposes finishing the city’s old style convention.
During the Byzantine time frame Athens turned into a social backwater. A large number of the city’s works of art were moved to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), and the sanctuaries ended up Christian holy places. Byzantine sovereigns infrequently visited Athens, however the city was to a great extent disregarded and ruined. After the Latin Crusaders vanquished Constantinople in 1204, Athens turned into a French medieval duchy. The Catalans assumed control over the city in 1311, yet they were ousted when a Florentine administration effectively introduced itself in the late fourteenth century.
The Ottoman Empire dealt with Athens in 1458. The Parthenon, worked as the significant sanctuary of the goddess Athena, was then made into a Muslim mosque. Under Ottoman guideline the town was still kept running by Greeks and had a blended populace of Turks, Greeks, and Slavs. The Parthenon was gravely harmed in 1687, when a Venetian siege touched off black powder that had been put away inside the structure.
The Greek War of Independence (1821-1829) freed the city from Ottoman standard and made it the capital of present day Greece. Athens was to a great extent revamped during the rule (1832-1862) of King Otto by German modelers, quite Eduard Schaubert. Prior to its development as a significant European business and mechanical focus in the twentieth century, it was significant chiefly as a visitor focus celebrated for its old landmarks.