Algiers (Arabic Al Jazair; French Alger), city, the principal Mediterranean port of northwestern Africa. It is located in northern Algeria, on the Bay of Algiers, and is the capital and largest city of Algeria and Algiers Province.
The city is isolated into two segments. The lower part is the advanced city, worked by the French, with wide avenues, theaters, churches, exhibition halls, a show house, and numerous instructive organizations, including the University of Algiers and a few Muslim schools. The upper part is the old city, with thin, winding boulevards commanded by the Casbah, a sixteenth century fortification worked by the Ottomans, which loans its name to the whole quarter. With the post-World War II populace increment, and the jamming in the local quarter, rural areas have thrived.
Algiers has a noteworthy worldwide airplane terminal and is the center point of a system of railroads and streets. Its vital position and fine harbor join to make Algiers a noteworthy transportation focus and a chief Mediterranean refueling station.
By 1200 bc the Phoenicians had colonized the site and set up a waterfront exchanging post. Following the Punic Wars, Algiers, at that point called Icosium, moved toward becoming (146 bc) some portion of the Roman Empire and stayed Roman until the center of the fifth century, when it was overwhelmed by the Vandals. Next, it was administered by the Byzantines, who, thusly, were expelled in 650 by Arabs.
The present city was established around 950 by Berbers. During the following five centuries control of the city was picked up and lost by different European, Arabian, and Berber warlords. In 1510 Spain caught and braced the islet before the harbor, known as the Peñón. In 1518 Algiers broadcasted itself part of the Ottoman Empire, and the Spanish were driven out. While governed by the Ottomans, it turned into the capital of the notorious Barbary Coast. For a long time Barbary privateers went after European, and later United States, shipping. In 1815 the American maritime chief Stephen Decatur drove a campaign against Algiers, compelling its senator to sign a harmony arrangement promising to end assaults on U.S. ships. The theft proceeded, in any case, and in 1816 the consolidated Dutch and British naval forces totally pulverized the Algerian armada.
Algiers stayed a privateer port until 1830, when France, fighting back against assaults on its vessels, caught the city and, in time, the whole nation. They held control until 1962, when Algeria won freedom. During World War II, Algiers served (1942-44) as the home office of Allied powers in North Africa and of the Free French legislature of General Charles de Gaulle.